The sprint process was developed at Google Ventures by Jake Knapp and others, and is an effective 5-day process to power through some of the most effective UX Research, Prototyping and Interviewing methods. Here's a small 90 second video summarizing the process:
I recommend you read the whole book (it's a quick read anyways) before you run your own sprint. For now, you can download the checklist here [pdf] and gloss over it once to give you an idea of what the process looks like. The checklist is, in essence, a very good summary of the book that you'll keep coming back to before/during running your own sprints.
Over the next 5 tutorials, we will go through some of the key ideas and processes within the Sprint process. These ideas/processes are applicable outside of running a sprint as well — more importantly when it comes to making decisions quickly or interviewing users etc. — so I hope they will be useful.