Here's a list of a few UX Research Methods and their one-line descriptions:
One-on-one meeting to get a participant’s feedback.
- Usability Labs
Participant is given a set of tasks and meets with a researcher.
A device is configured to measure where people look when they perform a task.
- Ethnographic Field Studies
Meet with participants in their natural environment.
- Participatory Design
Participants are given design elements and use them to construct their ideal experience.
- Usability Benchmarking
Study with precise and predetermined measures of performance.
- Focus Groups
Groups of 3-12 participants are lead through a discussion during which they give their feedback.
- Concept Testing
Participants are shown an approximation of a product or service to determine if it meets the needs of the target audience.
- Diary/Camera Studies
Participants record aspects of their lives that are relevant to the product or service.
- Customer Feedback
Information generally provided by users through a form or an email.
- Card Sorting
Method that asks users to organize items into groups and assign them categories. This helps to create the information architecture by revealing the participants’ mental models.
- A/B Testing
Test of different designs by randomly assigning groups of users to interact with each of the designs and measuring the effect on user behavior.
- Email Surveys
Participants are recruited by an email message.