Link to paper: [1409.4842] Going Deeper with Convolutions
This paper introduces a neural network architecture that is deeper and wider, yet optimizing for computational efficiency by approximating the expected sparse structure (following from Arora et al's work) using readily available dense blocks. An ensemble of 7 models (all with the same architecture but different image sampling) achieved top spot in the classification task at ILSVRC2014."Their main result states that if the probability distribution of the data-set is representable by a large, very sparse deep neural network, then the optimal network topology can be constructed layer by layer by analyzing the correlation statistics of the activations of the last layer and clustering neurons with highly correlated outputs."Main contributions:
- A more generalized exploration of the NIN architecture, called the Inception module.
- 1x1 convolutions to capture dense information clusters
- 3x3 and 5x5 to capture more spatially spread out clusters
- Ratio of 3x3 and 5x5 to 1x1 convolutions increases as we go deeper as features of higher abstraction are less spatially concentrated.
- To avoid the blow-up of output channels cause by merging outputs of convolutional layers and pooling layer, they use 1x1 convolutions for dimensionality reduction. This has the added benefit of another layer of non-linearity (and thus increasing discriminative capability).
- Multiple intermediate layers are tied to the objective function. Since features produced by intermediate layers of a deep network are supposed to be very discriminative, and to strengthen the gradient signal passing through them during back-propagation, they attach auxiliary classifiers to intermediate layers.
- During training, they do a weighted sum of this loss with the total loss of the network.
- At test time, these auxiliary networks are discarded.
- Architecture: average pooling, 1x1 convolution (for dimensionality reduction), dropout, linear layer with softmax.
- Excellent results on ILSVRC2014.
- Even though the authors try to explain some of the intuition, most of the design decisions seem arbitrary.