Where do network effects kick in for autonomous vehicles?
Maps have network effects. When any autonomous car drives down a pre-mapped road, it is both comparing the road to the map and updating the map: every AV can also be a survey car. If you have sold 500,000 AVs and someone else has only sold 10,000, your maps will be updated more often and be more accurate, and so your cars will have less chance of encountering something totally new and unexpected and getting confused. The more cars you sell the better all of your cars are - the definition of a network effect.
So, maps are the first network effect in data - the second comes in what the car does once it understands its surroundings. Driving on an empty road, or indeed on a road full of other AVs, is one problem, once you can see it, but working out what the other humans on the road are going to do, and what to do about it, is another problem entirely.